Were the early Christians communists? Roman Montero makes the case that they were and backs it up with his book All Things In Common: The Economic Practices of the Early Christians. Roman A. Montero spends a lot of time studying early Christianity, Koine Greek, early Christian texts, and the historical context of second temple Judaism.
Roman explains his use of the word “communism” in this short essay from Dandelion Salad:
“The actual classical meaning of the word, the meaning that actually represents something in reality, is basically nothing more than any social-relationship or structure where the principle of “from each according to his ability to each according to his need” is the primary moral framework of the social relationship or structure. Instead of replacing the term with something else, I went through the trouble of breaking down what communism actually means and contrasting it with other principles of social-relationships like hierarchy or exchange. The reason I stuck with the term “communism” was simple: that term is simply the most fitting term for the economic practices of the early Christians that differentiated them from the larger Roman world; the more I studied the issue the more I became convinced of that.”